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Gender pay gap of 12.8% persists in Singapore: Glassdoor report
Over the last three years, women earned about 12.8 per cent less than men in Singapore, taking home about 87 Singapore cents for every S$1 earned by men in terms of median pay.
This is according to a Glassdoor report - Progress on the Gender Pay Gap: 2019, published on Wednesday. The multi-country study by the job and recruiting platform analysed 5,096 salaries reported by Singaporean employers on Glassdoor's site from 2016 to 2018, and found the average annual base pay for men to be S$71,631.
In comparison, women earned an average base pay of S$61,653 per year, working out to an overall difference of S$9,978.
After researchers applied statistical controls to compare workers with the same age, job title, employer and location, among other factors, the adjusted pay gap fell to 5.2 per cent. Singapore’s adjusted pay gap is on a par with that of the UK and the US, with women in these countries earning about 95 cents to a dollar or pound.
The report found that about 60 per cent of the overall pay gap in Singapore can be explained by differences in worker characteristics, such as the sorting of men and women into different industries and occupations (16 per cent), and differences in education and experience between genders (45 per cent).
The remaining 39 per cent could not be explained by any factors observable in Glassdoor’s data, and could be attributed to factors such as workplace bias, negotiation gaps between men and women and/or other unobserved worker characteristics.
Among the eight countries examined in the report, five of them had been previously analysed in a 2016 Glassdoor study – France, Australia, Germany, the UK and the US. All except Germany showed narrower unadjusted and adjusted pay gaps in the latest report, although the gaps remain significant.
Germany had the largest unadjusted gap of the countries studied, with women earning about 78 cents per euro earned by men, while France had the smallest unadjusted gap with women earning about 88 cents per euro.
In adjusted pay gap terms, Australia came out on top with women earning 97 cents per dollar. On the other hand, the Netherlands had the largest adjusted pay gap with women earning 93 cents per euro.
“Over the past three years, company leaders, politicians, celebrities and more have called for an end to the gender pay gap. Glassdoor’s comprehensive study put those words to the test to reveal that slight progress has been made to close the gap,” said Glassdoor chief economist Andrew Chamberlain.
“Though a promising sign, it should not detract from the larger fact that significant pay gaps remain around the world, even after controlling for workplace and job factors. Leveraging Glassdoor’s unique salary and pay database, we’re shining a light on the factors that explain the documented differences in pay between men and women and, perhaps more importantly, where unexplained barriers continue to slow the march towards pay equality.”