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Dockless bike, scooter firms clash with US cities over regulations
THE US experiment with dockless bikeshare and scooters is at a crossroads, with operators and cities struggling to find a balance between governments' need to regulate the services without stifling the companies' ability to make money.
Dockless bikeshare giant Ofo has pulled out of several major US markets - including Washington, Chicago and Miami - citing regulatory hurdles, while backlash has restrained the explosive growth of scooter operations in cities from San Francisco to Cambridge, Massachusetts.
"What we are seeing around the country is a very rapidly evolving system," Seattle City Council member Mike O'Brien said recently before the council approved one of the most comprehensive sets of regulations for the industry in the nation. Dockless bike systems began to pop up in the US a year ago, growing exponentially in part thanks to the millions of dollars that investors such as Uber and Google have put into companies such as Lime, JUMP Bikes and Bird.
While many communities were excited by the opportunity that dockless bikes and scooters presented to expand car-free commuting options for residents, they were unprepared for the massive growth and the public backlash as abandoned bikes and scooters began clogging sidewalks, parks and other public spaces. The lack of regulation also has led to increased tension among other road users - and pedestrians - over issues such as right of way and where the vehicles are permitted.
In the nation's capital, one of the first US cities to permit the dockless services, Chinese competitors Ofo and Mobike recently pulled their services, citing Washington's restrictions on fleet size and its slowness in moving the programme from the pilot phase to permanent. Many residents who have come to depend on the services are working with advocates to push Washington regulators to reconsider their rules. They succeeded in convincing the city to abandon an unpopular plan to impose a US$200-per-bike fee on operators and are now urging the city to consider lifting the cap on fleets from 400 per company to allow up to 20,000 dockless bikes in the city. Elsewhere, cities are still trying to find the right approach.
Some have banned the services, reacting to the unannounced arrival of the scooters and bikes with "cease and desist" orders. San Francisco banned all shared e-scooters in June, forcing companies to stop operations and go through a permitting process. A Los Angeles City Council member last week called for a ban on scooters and asked the city to issues cease-and-desist letters to companies already operating in the city. Meanwhile, the Seattle City Council voted to allow up to 20,000 bikes, doubling the number now available. But with the expansion, the city also adopted a plan to allow four companies to operate up to 5,000 bikes each - as long as they pay the city an annual fee of US$250,000.
In Washington, Mobike said the 400-bike cap was too small to serve the entire city and provide reliable service. By comparison, in Milan, a service area similar in size to Washington, the company operates 8,000 bikes.
Ofo officials have criticised caps on fleets as shortsighted and a barrier for companies to succeed. They called Seattle's newly approved fee "exorbitant".
Toby Sun, chief executive of Lime, which launched on a North Carolina college campus just over a year ago and is now in more than 70 markets across four countries, said regulations are understandable, but if they are too tough they can imperil the programmes in places where demand is high. Higher operational fees, he said, may result in higher costs for users. Critics of the programmes, however, say cities aren't regulating enough.
"If they get their wishes and the city grants them the ability to have thousands of bikes on the sidewalks, the obstacles, the potential for tripping and injury will grow exponentially," said Steven Richert, a personal fitness trainer in Washington who works with the elderly and people with disabilities who struggle to navigate city streets.
"What I would hope cities would do is to stop this programme before it gets any worse. But at least begin to regulate it, which they haven't done."
Transportation officials and advocates for multimodal transportation options say the sidewalk problems can be remedied with regulation, education and enforcement. Studies and companies report complaints are dwindling as users learn dockless decorum, companies implement incentives and penalties for reckless usage, and the communities adjust to the new services. What cities are likely to continue to wrestle with is finding the right regulations to govern the services, from what their ideal number of devices is to determining reasonable operational fees. And, they may continue to face that question as more technologies emerge. WP